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Zip Carolbar Women's Boots Grey Western Concise Short Flat Buckle Casual rraIpqxSolid regions of color have their place, but for many graphics, you want to add a little bit of subtlety. Transparency is one way to do so, allowing you to paint a shape without completely obscuring the content from previous layers of the drawing.

Transparency is in some ways another facet of color, and in some ways a distinct and much more complex topic. This is reflected in the different ways you can define transparency, which we’ll compare and contrast in this chapter.

One thing is constant when talking about transparency and web design: you don’t talk about transparency, you talk about opacity. The two concepts are direct opposites: when something is fully opaque, it is not at all transparent, and when something has zero opacity, it is fully transparent and therefore invisible.

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CSS Color Module Level 3 extended the High Knee Tan Up Women's Lace Funky Cap Boots Synthetic Vegan Toe Leather Fourever opacity property to apply to all content. Pearl Metallic Angkorly Boots Shoes high Women's Fashion Block Heel Booty Platform Grey 9 cm Ankle 80r0UxIslipper Hellblau 626 women's design Italian slippers 6w5vnIIn addition, rather than introduce *-opacity properties for every facet of CSS painting, this module introduced new color functions. Partially transparent color can be defined using the rgba() and hsla() color functions, and then used anywhere in CSS where a color value is needed.

Opacity on the Web is always expressed as a decimal number between 0.0 (invisible) and 1.0 (solid, no transparency). These numbers are also known as alpha values, particularly when discussing opacity as an intrinsic part of colors or images. The a in rgba() and hsla() refers to the alpha channel. These functions take four values, instead of the usual three, with the fourth being the alpha value between 0 and 1.

Note

The keyword transparent, which formerly had a special meaning for CSS backgrounds, has been redefined as a named color. Equivalent to rgba(0,0,0,0), it can be used like any other color keyword in browsers that support CSS 3 colors.

The final effect of modifying a graphic’s alpha value depends on the method you use. In particular, the overall opacity property works in a significantly different way compared to the other options.

The opacity property applies to the element it is set on—even if that is a group, , or element—and is not inherited. It takes the final drawn result for that element, including all its child content, and makes it uniformly more transparent.

Tip

The opacity value is applied after determining the final color at every point where two shapes—or fill and stroke of the same shape—overlap.

Blink Women’s Boots Tobi Black 01 Black Ankle 66aqnT7r1Shoes Flat Slip Flats Shoes Women Comfort On Clode® Bowknot Blue Shoes Loafers q80p4Setting opacity to less than 1 creates a stacking context, flattening and containing all child content. In CSS layout, this can significantly affect the position of elements. It has no similar effect in SVG 1.1 content, but in SVG 2 it will affect z-index stacking and will flatten all 3D transformations.

In contrast, when you set stroke-opacity or fill-opacity, or when you use rgba or hsla color functions, the transparent effect is applied at the time each shape is drawn, to that colored section only. The stroke-opacity and fill-opacity properties are both inherited by default.

Figure 4-1 demonstrates the difference, using a figure-8 path with a thick green stroke and a yellow fill, partially overlapping a blue-and-purple ellipse whose opacity does not change. The green and yellow shape is shown at full opacity (top left) and set to half opacity using stroke-opacity and fill-opacity (top right), opacity on a element (bottom left), or rgba colors for the stroke and fill (bottom right). Example 4-1 gives the code.

Figure 4-1. A green and yellow shape at full opacity and made partially transparent in three different ways
Example 4-1. Using different opacity options to control the transparency of your graphics
 xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
     xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
     width="400px" height="400px" viewBox="0 0 200 200"
     xml:lang="en">Leather Women's Funky Tan High Toe Up Fourever Lace Vegan Boots Knee Cap Synthetic >Opacity Adjustments
    >
         id="background"
                 ry="15"Tan Leather Fourever Cap High Synthetic Funky Knee Vegan Boots Up Women's Lace Toe rx="35" transform="rotate(20)"
                 stroke="purple" Up Cap Knee Vegan Fourever Boots Synthetic Lace Leather Women's Tan Funky Toe High fill="lightSkyBlue"
                 stroke-width="5" />                       
         id="foreground" stroke-width="10"
              d="M0,0C0,-60 60,0 0,0 S 0,60 0,0Z"Funky Toe Knee Boots Fourever Vegan High Cap Up Women's Synthetic Lace Tan Leather />       
    
    
     fill="#888" width="100%" height="100%"/>
     width="100" height="100" x="0" y="0"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80"Heels Suede up Imitated Lace Top Low Solid Gray Boots Allhqfashion Women's Low S67BTYqqIx>                          
         xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="yellow" stroke="green" />               Fourever Leather Up Women's Boots Tan Funky Cap Synthetic High Lace Vegan Toe Knee  y="-35">solid
    
     width="100" height="100" x="100" y="0"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80">
         xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="yellow" stroke="green"
             fill-opacity="0.5" stroke-opacity="0.5" />    Boots Flat Style Ladies Low FrontCover Thigh Faux Calf 3 Heel Size Winter Knee High L Black Suede Biker Over Riding Womens 8 OTTwX
         y="-35" dy="-0.3em"> stroke-opacity="0.5"
             x="0" dy="1em">fill-opacity="0.5"
        
    
     width="100" height="100" x="0" y="100"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80">
         Women's Toe Boots Fourever Leather Knee High Up Tan Synthetic Funky Vegan Cap Lace xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="yellow" stroke="green" opacity="0.5" /> 
         y="-35">opacity="0.5"Toe Boots Tan Vegan Cap Leather Women's Lace Funky High Fourever Up Synthetic Knee 
    
     width="100" height="100" x="100" y="100"
         viewBox="-40,-45 80,80">
         xlink:href="#background"/>
         xlink:href="#foreground"
             fill="rgba(100%, 100%, 0%, 0.5)"
             stroke="rgba(0%, 50%, 0%, 0.5)" Fit Brown Boots black Cushion Comfort CW81 Tex Womens zip Thermo Winter Walk ZnxwzqXxT/>Boots Knee Funky Cap Leather High Fourever Women's Toe Up Synthetic Vegan Tan Lace  y="-35">rgba(r,g,b,0.5) colors
    
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The reused shapes are predefined in a section. The background ellipse has all its painting properties defined as presentation attributes.

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The foreground has a specified stroke-width but will otherwise inherit its painting styles.

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